Standards of Child Care

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Standards of Child Care

Postby Marina » Fri Jun 23, 2006 7:55 am

Standards of Child Care

Posts: 5496
Joined: Sat Feb 25, 2006 3:06 pm

Postby Marina » Fri Jun 23, 2006 9:23 am

Caring for our Children,
National Health and Safety Performance Standards

Standards are mainly for day care or "out of home care," but good for home use.
Quotes below are about consistent caregivers.
Related references are about Attachment Theory.
Links for Reactive Attachment Disorder are in Psychiatry section of this website. ... ndards.pdf


Opportunities shall be provided for each child to
develop a personal and affectionate relationship
with, and attachment to, that child’s parents and
one or a small number of caregivers whose care
for and responsiveness to the child ensure relief of
distress, experiences of comfort and stimulation,
and satisfaction of the need for a personal relationship.
The facility shall limit the number of caregivers
who interact with any one infant to no more
than three caregivers in a given day and no more
than five caregivers across the period that the child
is an infant in child care. The caregivers shall:
a) Hold and comfort children who are upset;
b) Engage in social interchanges such as smiling,
talking, touching, singing, and eating;
c) Be play partners as well as protectors;
d) Attune to children’s feelings and reflect them

RATIONALE: Trustworthy adults who give of themselves
as they provide care and learning experiences
play a key role in a child's development as an active,
self-knowing, self-respecting, thinking, feeling, and
loving person (9). Limiting the number of adults with
whom an infant interacts fosters reciprocal understanding
of communication cues that are unique to
each child. This leads to a sense of trust of the adult
by the infant that the infant’s needs will be understood
and met promptly (88, 89). Studies of infant
behavior show that infants have difficulty forming
trusting relationships in settings where many adults
interact with a child, e.g., in hospitalization of infants
when shifts of adults provide care. This difficulty
occurs even if each of the many adults are very caring
in their interaction with the child. Assigning a consistent
caregiver to an eight-hour shift in such settings
has been observed to help. This limits the number of
different adults with whom the child interacts in a
three to 24-hour period (90, 91).

88. Kassidy J, Shaver, P, eds. Handbook of Attachment:
Theory, Research and Clinical Applications. New York, NY:
Guilford Press, 1999: 671-687.
89. Provence, S, Lipton, R. Infants in Institutions. New
York, NY: International Universities Press, 1962: 55-
90. Solnit, AJ. Aggression: a view of theory building in
psychoanalysis. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic
Association 1972; 20:3.
91. Gopnik, A, Meltzoff, AN, Kuhl, PK. The Scientist in
the Crib: Minds, Brains, and How Children Learn. New
York, NY: William Morrow and Co., 1999: 49, 202.

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Facilities shall provide opportunities for each child
to build long-term, trusting relationships with a
few caring caregivers by limiting the number of
adults the facility permits to care for any one child
in child care to a maximum of 8 adults in a given
year and no more than 3 in a day.
RATIONALE: Children learn best from adults who
know and respect them; who act as guides, facilitators,
and supporters of a rich learning environment;
and with whom they have established a trusting relationship
(20, 21). When the facility allows too many
adults to be involved in the child’s care, the child does
not develop a reciprocal, sustained, responsive,
trusting relationship with any of them.
Children should have continuous friendly and trusting
relationships with several caregivers who are
reasonably consistent within the child care facility.
Young children can extract from these relationships a
sense of themselves with a capacity for forming
trusting relationships and self-esteem. Relationships

are fragmented by rapid staff turnover or if the child is
frequently moved from one child care facility to
COMMENTS: Compliance should be measured by
staff and parent interviews. Turnover of staff lowers
the quality of the facility. High quality facilities maintain
low turnover through their wage policies, training
and support for staff (22).

20. Rodd, J. Understanding Young Children’s Behavior: A
Guide for Early Childhood Professionals. New York, NY:
Teacher’s College Press; 1996.
21. Greenberg, P. Character Development: Encouraging
Self-esteem & Self-discipline in Infants, Toddlers and Two-
Year-Olds. Washington, DC: National Association for
the Education of Young Children; 1991.
22. Whitebook M, Bellm D. Taking on Turnover: An
Action Guide for Child Care Center Teachers and Directors.
Washington, DC: Center for the Child Care Workforce;

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(I was a substitute in day care centers, where substitutes were sometimes used as "temps." In Virginia, the last 30-day employer is liable for Unemployment Compensation, so we were not allowed to work more than 29 days in some centers.

One time I was placed with non-verbal 2-yr-old children, who I had never seen before, in a room I had never been in before, alone for 1 1/2 hrs, with about a week or two of experience in this age group. Some wore diapers, some went potty but had diapers. Diapers are brought from home, so must match the child. At this age, a daily report is supposed to be filled out on eating, sleeping and changing. I had hardly done this, as a substitute, only if I was alone during nap time when ratios are doubled, I recorded a diaper change. It occurred to me later that there may have been pictures of the children inside the clipboard case, attached to their files.

When the other girl came, I asked who I was replacing. I had learned to anticipate this. There was a regular person in the morning. I asked who was the regular person in the afternoon. She said, "I NEVER KNOW WHO THEY ARE GOING TO SEND ME."


In the afternoon, I worked with a floater who had a hard time trying to remember the kids names. The daily reports didn't get filled out and the parents were mad.

I became so blitzed out on behalf of these children that I acted unprofessionally the next day -- I measured the room with a tape measure because the staff complained that there were 22 children in the room, and there are square footage ratio requirements. The two regular teachers flipped, told the owner, who happened to be having teacher consultations that day, in anticipation of hiring a new director.

Several days later I received word that I wouldn't be working there any more. This owner had been on TV about square footage regulations when the legislature was in session, opposing stricter rules. He told me he was upset that the other workers learned about the issue of square footage (After he was on TV about it!)

The center was supposed to be accredited, but not by NAEYC, National Association for the Education of the Young Child, the best accreditating organization. NAEYC policy is for staff to actively monitor and report licensing violations.

There was a legitimate reason for me to know square footage, even as a substitute. In early morning, groups are combined until the next staff arrives, and there is danger of overcrowding with a substitute, who is reluctant to divide the group and go to another room with total strangers, with nobody in the office.

Playground time has to be strictly scheduled for some centers, because the area may be small, and two groups would be out of ratio forsquare-footage outside.

In late afternoon, groups are combined, perhaps inside or out.

When I had worked there previously in another room, I ended up on the playground at the end of the day, when staff take turns leaving the kids outside and going in to clean for about 20 minutes. As the groups get smaller, they combine, and we ended up with 2 substitues who didn't know the names of any of the children, with kids being picked up by parents we had never seen, trying to count the children on 3 or 4 clipboards. We had no idea when we could physically combine the groups outside into one playground area, because occupancy limits are not posted outside, and I have only seen it posted on rare occasions inside.

I had measured the playground first, with the help of the children. Teachers who knew me well at a private school I used to work at would have thought nothing of this. I was always bringing in unusual things for the children to do, and so were the other teachers.

We were even told by the agency to take activities to a center every day, even if you are a floater in 5 different rooms, with 5 different ages, and there was one coat hook for 3 staff members, and absolutely no counter space, out of reach of toddlers, for your personal tote bag.
And even if the lead teacher already had the whole day planned and didn't want the stuff you planned, and even if you are alone in a roomful of 4-yr-olds, where 3 children give you their name wrong, and don't match the names on the clipboard or cubbies, and you can't count them on the playground because they are mixed in with 2 other groups. And where you have to send 12 kids to potty before going outside and you can't remember who has gone and who hasn't.

Anyway, I said all that to explain why I found out about attachment theory. I had to research inconsistent caregivers, which led to multiple caregivers, which led to attachment disorder. This experience made me passionate about "attachments."

It made such a profound impression on the that I am here day after day researching for others who have been affected by the situations of the children they are attached to.

Posts: 5496
Joined: Sat Feb 25, 2006 3:06 pm

Postby Marina » Sat Jun 24, 2006 6:14 am

Random Collection of links relating to Standards of Child Care

FDA food code

keep your food safe

food safety A to Z reference guide

refrigerator and freezer storage chart

child nutrition



nutrition, food safety and health

clean kitchen ... ecipe.html ... face.shtml

USDA Food and nutrition information center!ut/p/_s ... _NUTRITION

FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition

Virginia Cooperative Extension Service: Health, Nutrition and Foods ... dfood.html

National Institutes of Health
Health Information

Medline Plus

American Dental Hygienists Association
Oral Health Information
Proper Brushing

first aid


exercise and physical fitness ... tness.html

health insurance

managed care


emergency car supplies ... 69,00.html

Triple A

fire safety

motor vehicle safety ... afety.html

sports safety

first aid

safety issues

household safety checklist ... klist.html

household products ... ducts.html

how safe is your kitchen ... tchen.html

child safety

drug safety

food safety

poison control safety tips

Child Day Care

family issues

Posts: 5496
Joined: Sat Feb 25, 2006 3:06 pm

Postby Marina » Tue Jul 04, 2006 7:46 am

13 Indicators of Quality Child Care:
Research Update
Presented to:
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation
Health Resources and Services Administration/Maternal and Child Health Bureau
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Presented by:
Richard Fiene, Ph.D.
Pennsylvania State University
National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care, University of Colorado


Posts: 5496
Joined: Sat Feb 25, 2006 3:06 pm

Postby Marina » Tue Jul 04, 2006 7:53 am

U.S. Department of Housing
and Urban Development
Office of Public and Indian Housing

Inspection Form
Housing Choice Voucher Program ... /forms.cfm

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Residential Rehabilitation Inspection Guide ... ction.html

Posts: 5496
Joined: Sat Feb 25, 2006 3:06 pm

Home standards for child care, foster care

Postby Marina » Sun Jul 23, 2006 7:51 pm

Home standards for child care, foster care

There are licensing standards for family day care homes, family foster homes, etc.

Minimum standards for licensed family day homes

New application for a state license to operate a family day home ... 00-eng.pdf

page 1


Note: Most people probably don't know this, but the fire inspection is somewhat of a fire AND safety inspection. There is a thick Life Safety Handbook at the public library which compiles all of the (electrical, plumbing, etc,) building codes with the fire codes, and sorts them into types of building usage. So there are sections for retail, manufacturing, educational, residential, daycare, etc. Whereas a building code book would go by electrical, roofing, plumbing, etc.

I worked at a daycare in the county which used well water, so the health inspector only checked the water purity. We did not have a licensed kitchen, the children brought lunch. In a center with a licensed kitchen, they have the same standards as a restaurant.

A licensed childcare center with a licensed kitchen has to have many, many things. They have to have 3 sinks, the 3rd one for bleaching the dishes. A dishwasher is acceptable. There has to be a separate handwashing sink. There has to be an institutional hood over the stove. So you see, a family daycare home, or a foster home, would not have a lot of these things.

These are the things a health inspector would look at, as far as facilities. Of course they would look at cleanliness, etc. Another thing they look for is having raw meat on the bottom shelf, so it won't drip down onto something else. Also, leftovers should be dated. In Richmond, they have the restaurant inspection once a week on the late news, and this is very educational. They pick several restaurants and examine their inspection reports, and film them.

If a friend of the family is considering providing child care in the "at risk" home after family reunification, then maybe an application for a daycare licence would reveal any problems. If a babysitter was actually serious about getting a license, the childcare provider's background check would not be affected by the CPS investigation of the family who has the children.

Actually, I think you would need 6 children to get a license. For fewer children, you would get voluntary licensing, implemented by a private agency, and this takes a very long time, because they have a waiting list in our area. I don't think anybody here is looking for more regulations to follow, I am just saying that other agencies could provide an inspection to prove adequate facilities.

I don't see why a prospective babysitter couldn't just call and ask for a fire inspection of the home where they may be babysitting, saying they need it for a daycare license application. Fire inspections are free here, and you don't have to give a reason. I don't know about health inspections. I think all of these inspectors are very busy, at least in a large city, and wouldn't spend much time on a residential request.

Notice that for daycare licensing, neither a fire inspection report, nor a health report, needs to accompany the application in Virginia.

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If I am not mistaken, the independent foster home category is for family or friends.

Licensing standards for independent foster homes


page 3
Provides for Social Services to inspect the facility.
For daycare, the licensing inspector comes from the STATE, not the locality. I am not sure about a foster home inspection. But a daycare inspection, at least, would not be controlled by the same agency that is investigating a family, I am thinking.

"4. I understand that the Virginia Department of Social Services shall request, as needed,
reports from the local health department, local fire department or State Fire Marshall"

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Minimum standards for licensed child caring institutions

22VAC40-100-290. Discipline
F. Physical punishment or isolation, or both, of a child shall require the approval of the administrator or his designee. In all instances, the administrator shall be notified of the child's physical punishment or isolation, or both. At any time a child is confined to his quarters, he shall not be without means of communicating with staff.

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When I was compiling an affidavit for a maintenance director in a nursing home, who was dismissed and had an unemployment compensation hearing, I included a statement that the health inspections of the food service part of the facility had no safety violations. This helped demonstrate to the hearing officer that work performance was satisfactory in this area, since he had adequate time and control of resources to do his job, whereas in the deficient areas, adequate resources were deliberately withheld from him, in order to insure his failure.

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